A series of nuclear/radiological and non-nuclear sources have contributed, are contributing or can contribute in the future to the release of artificially produced or naturally occurring radionuclides to the environment. Following nuclear events, a major fraction of refractory radionuclides such as uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) will be present as particles, ranging from sub-microns to fragments. Thus, particles are an essential part of the source term, and particle characteristics are essential for the ecosystem transfer, accumulation and effects. To improve the predictive power of impact assessment models, key research questions for RA1 are:
- How do release scenarios impact the source term; radionuclide and multiple stressor composition and speciation, in particular the nm - mm sized particle characteristics
- What is the relevance of particles to air/water transport, deposition, ecosystem transfer and exposure models?
- Can a common dose concept be developed for UV and ionizing radiation?
Research Area 1 comprises three umbrella projects: