Knowledge, Teaching and Learning

White Paper 30, "Culture for learning" emphasizes the need for a stronger and more targeted focus on practice-oriented research and development in teacher education in dialogue with the school owners. The research takes its point of departure in our educational training for teachers. The practice-based research will be developed further in the future.

Priority research areas and topics:

Learning within natural resource management

Research in vocational didactic within natural resource management includes both learning linked to the study programs in natural resource sciences and the meaning of natural resource management as the basis for learning in primary schools, local economic development and landscape management. Three research areas are prioritized:

  1. Academic and educational development in the field of study on natural resource management in the face of changing needs in the community and among students.
  2. The use of the farm as an entity of learning in primary and secondary schools.          
  3. Communication and learning related to the role of natural resource management in local and regional development and landscape management.

Learning within science

There are three research areas that are relevant:

  1. Research on a phenomenological access to natural science education (see ).              
  2. Research on exploratory work methods in natural science and basic skills, based on “Elevforsk” (“Student Research”) (see This research is also focused on educational use of ICT, including collaborative tools (web 2.0).
  3. Research on education for sustainable development and an inclusive natural science is a priority based on the project SUSTAIN (see

Development of the educational fields of pedagogics, general didactics and supervision

The research is practice-based and has its point of departure in the activities that we teach. The activities are developed through documentation, reflection and theory formation.

Examples of activities:

Development of strategies for self-regulated learning, supervision of/between students with the usage of ICT, the development of methods for usage of artistic expression in education and supervision.

Published 1. July 2014 - 11:54 - Updated 28. November 2016 - 12:18

Phenomenon-based science education is opposed to a science teaching which too often is planned “from the end”: Starting with the basic concepts and the scientific structures and from there moving into the world of phenomena and lived experience. In contrast, a science teaching planned “from the start” involves a primary focus on perceptual lifeworld experience and a secondary cognitive or reflective activity in which these experiences are understood or explained.

This pedagogical idea is based on the notion of phenomenology as an attempt to return to “the things themselves” and to experience and understand phenomena from within. To apply phenomenology to science education entails an interplay between building a theoretical foundation for a phenomenological science education and developing guidelines for science teachers and science teacher educators. After an initial phase of developing this foundation for teaching and learning, the next phase will have to emphasis stronger research on students’ and teachers’ learning in phenomenon-based science education.


Dahlin, B., Østergaard, E. & A. Hugo (2009). An Argument for Reversing the Bases of Science Education - A Phenomenological Alternative to Cognitionism. Nordina 5(2) 2009, p. 201-215. (se vedlegg

Hugo, A. (2006). Når faget vokser ut av fenomenene. Naturen som historieforteller. IMT – rapport nr. 12/06.

Østergaard, E., & B. Dahlin (2009). Sound and Sensibility. Science Teacher Students Bridging Phenomena and Concepts. In: Proceedings from 2009 NARST Annual International Conference. April 17 - 21, 2009, Garden Grove, CA, USA, p. 328 [full paper on attached CD-ROM] (se vedlegg)

Østergaard, E. og S. Strangstadstuen (2004). Fenomen- og virksomhetsbasert undervisning. En eksempelsamling. Chiron Nr. 1 2004. IMT, Universitetet for miljø- og biovitenskap

Østergaard, E., B. Dahlin & A. Hugo (2008). Doing phenomenology in science education: a research review. Studies in Science Education, vol. 44, nr. 2, s. 93-121. (se vedlegg)

Østergaard, E., A. Hugo & B. Dahlin (2007). From phenomenon to concept: Designing phenomenological science education. In: V. Lamanauskas & G. Vaidogas (Eds.). Proceedings from the 6th. IOESTE Symposium for Central and Eastern Europe, 123-129. Siauliai, Lithuania, June 2007. (se vedlegg)

From phenomenon to concept: Designing phenomenological science education

Doing phenomenology in science education: a research review

Sound and sensibility. Pre-service science teachers bridging phenomena and concepts

An Argument for Reversing the Bases of Science Education - A Phenomenological Alternative to Cognitionism

Published 8. April 2014 - 14:44 - Updated 23. May 2017 - 19:47