This master thesis looks at how maps and GIS are used against BIM models. The reason why this topic seemed interesting was that author had seen how bad knowledge about maps can make a project delayed and more expensive. Use of maps is not the biggest part of BIM, but maps have to be correctly used for the project to be successful. The main question this paper seeks to answer is:“How are maps used in construction projects today and what are the consequences of failure? Is software optimized for maps in BIM, and what opportunities exist? How could the developer ensure that maps are being used properly in a BIM project?”
Several problems could occurring when maps is used. Coordinate systems are some of the most difficult in this respect because it seems incomprehensible to most people. Projections also create some trouble because maps are used in a way they weren’t intended for because they have shrinkage for making wider zones. Veidekke has been in good guidance during this task when they were supporting with information and time from experienced engineers and managers. This has helped the master thesis a lot and could not have been completed without this support. Interviews from engineers, architects, property developers etc have formed the basis of data which the results have been based on. This has given the thesis honest information directly from those who work with this on a daily basis. In this paper four projects have been investigated which was completed or under construction. These projects had challenges that have been investigated to find out how BIM projects can be improved in the future, and the positive experiences have also been collected. Participating in software courses have been important to understand how BIM works, and to locate the challenges a user may have in use of BIM software.
The results in this paper are based on: - Experiences made during the work, - The theory of BIM, - Results from interviews, - Use of GIS, - Mapping systems theory. The results found were that maps are used incorrectly in projects. People in charge of maps and georeferencing are not qualified for this type of planning, resulting in expensive and unnecessary mistakes. Errors can arise at the very start of the project and stay hidden until the construction phase before the error is discovered. Wrong use of maps or map system has made it necessary to redo the planning, which costs time and money. GIS is not used optimally today, there are the big opportunities for visualization and automatic generation of 3D models that can be of great benefit to the project. If the maps are used correctly they will not make any trouble for the project, and save the engineer a lot of effort. Property developers should be more aware of who is in charge of using maps in the project. Failing so would make them do the same errors again and again. Use of BIM manuals will help managing the projects a lot, since they are getting better and better. The study is availabl for download from here (PDF, 13Mb)