Course code VET336

VET336 Special Pathology, Introduction to Diagnostic Work and Animal Welfare

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Showing course contents for the educational year 2019 - 2020 .

Course responsible: Ann Kristin Egeli
Teachers: Lisbeth Hektoen, Wenche Kristin Farstad, Cathrine Taule Fjordbakk, Adam Dunstan Martin, Henning Andreas Haga, Arild Espenes, Vibeke Rootwelt, Hans Petter Kjæstad, Carl Fredrik Ihler, Ane Christine Wammer Nødtvedt
ECTS credits: 27
Faculty: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Teaching language: NO
(NO=norsk, EN=Engelsk)
Teaching exam periods:
This course starts in Fall semester. This course has teaching/evaluation in Fall semester
Course frequency: Yearly
First time: Study year 2016-2017
Last time: 2023H
Preferential right:



Course contents:
  • Production Animal Clinical Science
  • Small Animal Medicine
  • Equine Medicine
  • Obstetrics
  • Reproduction
  • Laboratory Animal Science
  • Pathology 
  • Treatment

Pathology is tested at the final exam after the 8th semester. All other topics are tested after 9th semester. 

Learning outcome:

The purpose of the Introduction to diagnostic work is for students to be knowledge and skill wise prepared for the clinical rotation in production animal, equine and small animal medicine in 8th and 9th semester. The goal is that the teaching should contribute to the integration between the preclinical and clinical part of the programme and that it has provided students with inspiration and desire to further clinical work. 

The block forms the basis so that the student after completing the course will master the following «Day one skills» by EAEVE: 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.7, 1.8, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.8, 2.9, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.11, 3.12, 3.13, 3.16, 3.17, 3.18, 3.19, 3.20

After completion of the course, the students should:

Learning objectives

Students should

  • Know the most common anomalies, disorders and diseases of the various organ systems that are included in the subjects being taught in the 7th semester.
  • Acquire sufficient knowledge to be well positioned when it comes to undertake patient assessment in the clinic, ie able to know about the causes, prevention, investigate further, monitor and treat individual animals that have been reviewed in the themes of 6th and 7th semester.
  • Know (to the extent that the subjects are reviewed in 6th and 7th semester) sufficiently about stock medicine to participate actively in stock findings.
  • knowledge about zoonoses so that students can protect themselves and others in the clinic.

Skills that should be acquired during the rotations:

  • Be able to handle experimental animals.
  • Be able to record anamnesis, conduct a physical examination and be familiar with the main points in a problem-oriented patient evaluation.
  • Be able to conduct an autopsy.
  • Be able to handle sick and healthy animals.
  • Possess basic surgical skills.
  • Be able to perform a gynecological examination of cows and a single heat control in bitch.
  • Take out a semen sample and evaluate the semen quality.
  • Be prepared for the clinical-preparing week during the semester. 

General competence:

  • Have learned to collaborate through colloquiums and group work, and be able to present the academic material both in writing and oral.
Learning activities:

The teaching is based on organ systems of living and dead animals. This takes place as theme modules consisting of lectures, problem solving in groups, demonstrations and reviews. The approach is a problem-oriented patient evaluation.


In rotations, students are divided into 6 groups. Students will get demonstrations and training in clinical examination as well as other basic skills on living animals, and performed autopsies on animals, and microscopy of tissue sections. Students have rotations at the pathologist (9 mornings), production animal clinic (6 mornings), horse clinic (2 mornings), experimental animal unit (3 short mornings),


Core literature for clinical part of the study:

Torleiv Løken «Klinisk diagnostikk hos produksjonsdyr». This must be mastered and similar facts for small animals and horses must also be mastered.


Otherwise it is recommended to start reading the recommended literature, but these works are also intended to be read in 8th, 9th and possibly in the differentiation year while learning by meeting cases and issues in the clinic.


We recommend that you read the distributed lecture notes and that you follow the emphasis in the teaching in the 6th and 7th semester and read about the various topics in relation to this.

Recommended prerequisites:
The block's earlier in the study.
Mandatory activity:

Teaching that requires mandatory attendance must be fulfilled during the assigned week. The timeschedule for mandatory attendance during the reproductionweek and the clinical-preparing week can change if special event occur. The students must be prepared for mandatory attendance during these week between 8:00 and 15:45. 

Mandatory attendance in the 7th semester involves all knowledge it is not possible to acquire through self study / litterature. In other words all practicals and introductions to how the practicals will be in the clinics. Undocumented abscense as in the clinics in general is not accepted. Abscense must be documented as illness and special circumstances (e.g. funerals). Students that has undocumented abscence might have to wait a year for retake. 

There are specific rules for attendance for each module. Questions regarding this should be takep up with the tutors responsible for the modules. 

There will be 6 tests during the semester. These tests will all be multiple choice and they will be preformed electronically through canvas with the result passed / not passed. If the student does not pass the test it will be possible to retake the test until the result is passed (there is no limit of tries and the students are encouraged to retake the test even after passing for educational purposes). These tests will be so-called controlpoints for the students to see that they have gained relevant knowledge through the teaching. Everything that is thaught during the 7th semester may be tested in exams later on in the study. 
Entrance requirements:
Admitted to the Veterinary Medicine Program and completed minimum 166,5 ECTS after third year at the program

Requirements for personal equipment

Work clothes and protective footwear. Stethoscope and scissors.


First aid kit is available in the clinics. Fire Training is provided in the clinics. Students are encouraged to wear gloves when handling medications and other risk materials, allergens and when handling animals suspected to be suffering from a zoonosis. There are separate infection locks by the entrance to the clinics for production animal medicine and the section of pathology. Overalls, gloves and boots are available by the infection locks.

Students who are pregnant or have compromised immune systems are encouraged to contact the responsible for the education in advance of all the clinical courses.

Rotation Pathology:

At the section hall, HMS training is divided in 2 parts. First a briefing with HMS rules that the students must read and sign. This is supplemented with information and pictures illustrating the procedures. The second part consists of information at the audience on how to implement infection control practices.

Rotation in the clinics:

Students cannot have been abroad for the last 72 hours before the clinic teaching in production animal medicine.

See the ¿Rules for handling large production animals and horses at NMBU Veterinary school ¿ and ¿Basic Policy regarding the handling of animals¿. ProdMed are not allowing more than 6 students each group when handling large animals. 

Clinic: Clinic Procedures are reviewed orally at the first visit. Production Animal Medicine has prepared a briefing on hygiene and safety of ProdMed¿s clinical activities. Excerpts are handed out.

Reproduction: Gloves are used when examining organs from the slaughterhouses. Gloves are also used upon examination of animals, and gloves shall be changed for each animal. 

Rotation Equine Clinic

Introduction to clinical procedures are reviewed orally. Students acknowledge that they have received this training.

The laboratory animal unit

Renewed international accreditation by AAALAC. This sets very stringent requirements for HMS training and procedures at the department.

Quarantine: The section has its own quarantine rules that state that if one has been in contact with animals abroad in the past three days or in contact with rodents, rabbits or production animals in Norway over the past two days, one will not gain access to the department. Allergen Information is given to the students.

Examination details: Total result: Passed / Failed