VET307 Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology
Showing course contents for the educational year starting in 2016 .
Course responsible: Ane Mohn Bjelland
ECTS credits: 24
Faculty: Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Teaching language: NO
Limits of class size:
Teaching exam periods:
Look at the semester plan
Course frequency: Yearly, with startup spring and end autumn the following year.
First time: 2015V
- Bacteriology and Mycology
Earlier in the programme, students are introduced to the topic through lectures in "Principles of Immunity and Disease. This is followed by the actual bacteriology teaching in the form of lectures, laboratory courses and study groups in the block "Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology." Bacteriology then comes up again in the courses like Food Safety and Pathology, and also in the clinical studies. In the course in infection in the differentiating year, students will again meet with infectious diseases, including bacteriology.
Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology will provide students with knowledge of micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi, and viruses), parasites and microbial toxins that can cause diseases in animals. Students will develop an understanding of how the host best can protect themselves against an overall infection pressure from all relevant pathogens within the host¿s environment. Teaching and course-related training will enable the student to schedule a diagnostic and epidemiological approach toward diseases caused by all agents who have a clinical and administrative importance in veterinary medicine.
The block forms the basis so that the student after completing the course will master the following «Day one skills» by EAEVE: 1.4, 1.6 ¿ 1.12, 2.1 - 2.9, 3.6, 3.8, 3.11, 3.12, 3.14, 3.17, 3.19 and 3.20
After completion of the courses, the students should:
- Have good knowledge of micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses), parasites and microbial toxins that can cause diseases in animals and humans.
- Describe taxonomy used for the characterization of microorganisms and parasites.
- Describe the structure of various types of microorganisms.
- Clarify reservoir, virulence factors and pathogenesis related to important microorganisms.
- Describe the morphology, life cycle and classic symptoms of important parasites.
- Clarify the key principles of infection hygiene.
- Clarify diagnostic methods and extraction of relevant samples from infected individuals and herds / populations.
- Explain and interpret analysis results regarding microorganisms and parasites.
- Clarify policies for the prevention and treatment of infections in animals, including zoonoses.
- Implement selected diagnostic methods in infectious courses.
- Manage infection in a responsible and hygienic manner.
- Have a behavior that helps to prevent infections.
- Show responsibility by a restrictive use of antibiotics and antiparasitic agents.
- Have learned to collaborate through colloquiums and group work, and be able to present the academic material both in writing and oral.
The course includes a general description of the major groups of infectious agents, and a more specific and detailed description of selected species / genera / families. In subareas like bacteriology / mycology and virology, comes the general section mainly at the start of the course. For Parasitology, however, which includes several fundamentally different subgroups, comes the general section more dispersed as the first part of the review of each subgroup. After the various groups of agents are reviewed, the teaching will emphasize a comprehensive understanding, by presenting the agents in relation to organ or animal species.
In the general section emphasis issues of importance for disease development due to agents in animals and humans such as hygiene, infection routes, significance of infection pressure, the animal's resistance, and more. The specific part emphasis agents that are involved in disease states in animals, including fish, and agents that can result in diseases in humans by food borne pathogens (after nutriment contamination). The course places special emphasis on the various infectious agents, their pathogenic properties and introduction to practical diagnostics including the basis for disease control in veterinary medicine. Teaching is provided in the form of lectures (72 hours), courses (80 hours) and organized study groups (40 hours).
Recommended literature and teaching objectives are found at the block¿s home area on Fronter.
The course is especially based on Principles of Immunity and Disease.
All lab courses are mandatory. It is allowed with up to 10 % absence in each of the courses in the subareas bacteriology/mycology, virology and parasitology. In case of absence beyond this, the student must attend next year's courses to get the course-related teaching approved. In some cases, a customized programme can be created. Safety requirements make the introductory course in bacteriology (3 days course) mandatory in order to participate in the rest of the bacteriology course. In case of more than one day's absence, the student must contact the Block Leader (or teacher in charge) for an assessment of the situation. Students will normally be allowed to take the exam even though not all mandatory teaching has been approved. The grade will not be valid until the programme requirements are approved.
Examination at the end of the 4th semester
Duration: 2 hours.
Examination support material: None.
There will be arranged a new exam in August for students who have failed, or have valid reasons for absence. Students can take the partial exam 2 although the partial exam 1 is failed, but must then retake the partial exam 1 the next summer. Partial exam 1 must be passed in order to pass the course
At the block's end, students must pass an oral examination in all three disciplines on the same day.
Examination support material: None.
Students with valid absence may, in exceptional cases, if there is availability, take a re-scheduled exam in the same exam period. Application is submitted to the Academic Administration.
Each of the fields of parasitology, virology and bacteriology / mycology is assessed; a grade in each subject area is set, as well as a common grade in the oral exam. This accounts for 70% of the total grade. Students who fail the oral exam in one or more subjects will take a new oral examination in these subjects the next year (January).
Grading scale: A-E
The grade is calculated on the basis of the grades in partial exam 1 (30%) and 2 (70%).
It is not possible to appeal a grade in an oral exam. Appeals about the grading in the multiple choice exam can only be made when the final grade is set. See the regulations.
Reduction of credits:
Lab coat is mandatory in course-related teaching (on loan at the laboratory).
Laboratory: Please see the instructions for the laboratory (Microbiology hall). It is mandatory with lab coats. Individual lab coats in the courses where the students are working with microbiology. There is a clean and unclean zone by the entrance to the laboratory. Hand wash and coat change is required at entry and exit.
Training in fire protection is provided. It is mandatory with lab coats when working with gas. A first aid kit and an emergency shower are available. Gas plants are centrally controlled with a stopcock. The stopcock is demonstrated to the students at the first visit. The number of gas units is reduced to a minimum. Gas plants are checked prior to the instruction 2 times a year. There are separate fume hoods used where chemicals are used. Since working with infection subjects represent a real risk of infection, thorough training and a variety of security measures are initiated:
Intro Course (three day course) in infectious learning:
- Provision of security policies to each student (on paper) the first day of class.
- Verbal information is accompanied by a PPT presentation about safety procedures at the first day of the intro course.
- Routines are taught and rehearsed. Demonstrations and practical training, many supervisors present to supervise and guide.
- It is not permitted that students are absent in this part.
Main course in infection learning:
- Safety procedures are repeated. The review of safety procedures in the intro course and in the main course are held by two different people, which is considered to be an advantage when the same points are rendered slightly differently and it sits better with the students afterwards.
- Introduction of discrepancy log - in other words spills and other incidents are logged; what happened, which students were involved and which follow-up were given.
Changes and procedures to prevent zoonoses: The following measures were introduced 2007-2009, to reduce the risk of laboratory infection in the course in infection learning:
- Listeria monocytogenes replaced with Listeria ivanovii (Listeria ivanovii is not human pathogenic).
- Salmonella Typhimurium replaced with diarizonae Salmonella (S. diarizonae is not human pathogenic).
- Practical execution of the typing of Salmonella bacteria is not done ¿¿anymore (now only demonstrated by the instructor).
- Streptococcus pneumoniae (human pathogenic, especially for those with weak immune systems) is not used more.
- Liquid culture has been replaced with Campylobacter (human pathogenic) and we have minimized the use of other types of liquid media (cultures in liquid media involves greater risk for spillage than cultures on solid media).
Students with compromised immune systems or who are pregnant are particularly susceptible to infections, and special care must be taken when working with biological agents. This applies particularly to Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella pathogenic biovar, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. None of these agents are used further in the course in infection teachings.
Examination details: Multiple choice and oral exam: A - E / Ikke bestått