Course code BIO300

BIO300 Microscopy Techniques

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Norsk emneinformasjon

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Showing course contents for the educational year starting in 2014 .

Course responsible: Yeon Kyeong Lee
Teachers: Hilde Raanaas Kolstad
ECTS credits: 10
Faculty: Department of Plant Sciences
Teaching language: EN, NO
(NO=norsk, EN=Engelsk)
Limits of class size:
Minimum of 6 students, maximum of 12 (may be increased up to 20 depending on available tutors). Note! Sign up by sending an email to: Admission has to be confirmed by email from this lab before the student can register for the course at the student office.
Teaching exam periods:
This course starts in January block. This course has teaching/evaluation in January block, Spring parallel.
Course frequency: <p>Annually</p><p>Sign up by sending an email to:</p><p>Admission have to be confirmed by e-mail from this lab before the student can register for this course at the student office (SIT).</p>
First time: 2004V
Preferential right:

Students (at master or PhD-level) who need to use microscopy methods in their assignment.

Course contents:

Lectures on general optics covering the following topics: Electromagnetic radiation, resolution ability, magnification, refractive index, diffraction, phase shifting, interference. Special optics: The general ray paths in LM, CLSM, SEM and TEM, various depiction methods and optical methods for increasing the contrast in LM, SEM, CLSM and TEM. Sample treatment: general methods in LM, SEM, CLSM and TEM (fixation methods, dehydration, castings, drying, cryomethods) general and special colouration methods. Demonstrations, teaching and exercises give a thorough introduction to the use of the microscopes and their various depiction techniques. Exercises where the students are to learn to make critical evaluations of the most appropriate methods to apply based on the problem and the nature of the sample.

Learning outcome:

Students will acquire theoretical and practical knowledge in optics, sample treatment and image formation to be able to: 1) explain central optical terms. 2) describe ray paths and image formation in various microscope types. 3) make rational choices concerning sample treatment and imaging methods based on sample type and the problem to be solved. 4) evaluate and interpret micrographs. Students should be able to: A) Diagnose, adjust and use the following microscopes: 1) Light microscopes - LM, with various types of optics (bright fields, dark fields, polarisation and fluorescence). 2) Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope - CLSM. 3) Scanning Electron Microscope - SEM, in various imaging modes (SEI and BEI) and for element determination (X-ray analysis). 4) Transmission electron Microscopy - TEM. B using the following equipment for sample treatment: 1) Ultramicrotrome for cutting in LM and TEM. 2) Cryostate for cutting in LM and SEM. 3) Coating-units (Sputter coater) in SEM. 4) Critical point drying (CPD) in SEM. C) Using a selection of methods in connection with sample treatment, colouring/marking and simple image treatment (will vary somewhat from one year to the next).

Learning activities:

Lectures. Web-based independent learning. Practical teaching, demonstrations and laboratory exercises.

Teaching support:


Compendium and selected websites


Recommended prerequisites:

Mandatory activity:

Exercises and demonstrations.


Written journal, 1/3 of the total grade. Oral exam, 2/3 of the total grade. The journal must be approved before the student are allowed to take the exam.

Nominal workload:

300 hours.

Entrance requirements:

Special requirements in Science

Reduction of credits:
Type of course:

Lectures: 10-12 hours per week. Demonstrations: 2-3 hours per week. Training: 10-12 hours per week Exercises: 10-15 hours per week. Additional lectures: Internet-based individual study and journals. Practical work ends with a written exercise/journal.


External examiner

Examination details: Term Paper: A - E / Ikke bestått