Course code PJH212

PJH212 Forage and Seed Crops

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Showing course contents for the educational year 2022 - 2023 .

Course responsible: Anne Kjersti Uhlen
Teachers: Ingjerd Dønnem, Åshild Gunilla Ergon, Susanne Eich-Greatorex, Øystein Ahlstrøm
ECTS credits: 10
Faculty: Faculty of Biosciences
Teaching language: EN, NO
(NO=norsk, EN=Engelsk)
Teaching exam periods:
Autumn parallel
Course frequency: Annually
First time: Study year 2015-2016
Course contents:
Main focus is on production and production systems for cereals and other seed crops (oilseed rapes and grain legumes) for food and feed, and forage crops (meadow and pasture plants, and annual forage crops) for roughage.  Adaptations in the cropping systems to achieve satisfactory yield and quality, as well as low environmental footprints is focused, being important elements in a sustainable food production. The climatic/edaphic conditions for plant production in Norway are emphasized, and the utilization of the agricultural areas throughout the country. The course includes the production and use of feed concentrates and roughage in Norwegian animal husbandry, and how nutritional demands of different animals are covered by these feedstuffs. Knowledge on the important traits of the crops, their growth and development, and responses to climatic and management factors are emphasized. The course emphasis management principals as crop establishments including tillage systems, fertilization and fertilization technology, harvesting methods and harvesting time, winter survival including winter stress physiology, forage crop mixtures, crop rotations and utilization of break crops. The quality of the harvested products to be used for both food and feed are focused. Moreover, production of seeds of these crops and factor affecting quality as seeds are included.
Learning outcome:


  • Have knowledge on the potential in Norway for production of seed crops for food and feed, and production of forage crops for roughage.
  • Have knowledge on the production and use of feed concentrates and roughage in the Norwegian animal husbandry, and how these feeds cover nutritional demands for different types of animals.
  • Have knowledge on the important agronomic and quality traits of the different crops (cereals, oilseed crops, protein crops, meadow and pasture plants), and understand their responses to environmental factors.
  • Have deep knowledge on management practices that are used, and how these can facilitate canopy development, yield and product quality.
  • Have knowledge on measures and strategies to reduce environmental footprints in the production.


  • Can identify the different seed crops and the most important meadow and pasture plants from morphological traits.
  • Can describe plant development in cereals, seed crops, and meadow and pasture plants.
  • Can perform the common quality analyses in cereals and evaluate quality for food and feed quality from quality analyses.
  • Can evaluate quality of roughage from the commonly used feed analyses.
  • Can read and understand scientific literature within the course topics and communicate and participate in discussions.


  • Can use the acquired knowledge and skills to procure and develop new knowledge in the field
  • Can communicate professional topics, and discuss adaptations and solutions with representatives from the value chains to reach goals for the agricultural production.
Learning activities:
Lectures will be given on important topics, supplemented by some lab excercises, colloquie, and 1-2 excursions. 
Teaching support:
A list will be given at the start of the course.
Recommended prerequisites:
PJH102, HFX133, JORD101, BOT130, BOT201
Mandatory activity:
Participation in exercises, excursions and guest lectures are obligate. Group work with presentation.
Written exam.
Nominal workload:
250 hours.
Entrance requirements:
Special requirements in Science
Reduction of credits:
5 ECTS against HFE205
Type of course:
Lectures: 44 hours  Excercises/lab:  6 hours Group work: 10t Excursions:  6 hours
External examiner shall approve the questions for the written exam and shall evaluate a selection of the answers.  
Allowed examination aids: A1 No calculator, no other aids
A2 No calculator, other aids as specified
Examination details: One written exam: Letter grades