Course code GEO220

GEO220 Hydrogeology

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Showing course contents for the educational year 2015 - 2016 .

Course responsible: Helen Kristine French
Teachers: Michael Heim, Leif Vidar Jakobsen
ECTS credits: 10
Faculty: Department of Environmental Sciences
Teaching language: EN, NO
(NO=norsk, EN=Engelsk)
Limits of class size:



Teaching exam periods:

This course starts in Spring parallel. This course has teaching/evaluation in Spring parallel.

Course frequency: <p>Annually</p><p><br/></p>
First time: Study year 2015-2016
Preferential right:


Course contents:

This course covers fundamentals of subsurface flow and transport, emphasizing the role of groundwater in the hydrologic cycle, the relation of groundwater flow to geologic structure. The course will cover the following topics: Darcy equation, flow nets, heterogeneity and anisotropy, storage properties, boundary conditions, recharge, well hydraulics, groundwater in fractured rock, groundwater quality, geological and hydrogeological characterisation methods. The course includes lectures, practicals, and group work and computer demonstrations.  All lectures are provided in Fronter together with other course material.


Learning outcome:

In this course, the students will learn about the properties of groundwater and it¿s role in the hydrological cycle. Further, the student will become familiar with how aquifers can be utilised and protected against pollution. The connections between bedrock, surficial deposits and groundwater, will be emphasised using relevant information provided in maps and databases. The student will become familiar with the most important properties of groundwater. After the course the student should understand how groundwater behaves and moves in porous media, including the basic equations for groundwater flow and transport (Darcy¿s equation); how to evaluate the potential for groundwater flow and storage based on geological maps, sustainable management of groundwater, methods for estimating hydraulic properties, flow and transport in groundwater. The student should be able to conduct a practical evaluation of the potential use of groundwater for drinking water and it's role for geotechnical aspects and in ecosystems. The student should have obtained an understanding that groundwater is an important resource that must be managed in a sustainable way.


Learning activities:
Lectures and practicals, but can also be followed remotely from lectures notes (power point files) and Flash components. The teaching consists of: 1. Explanation of the theory on the flow of groundwater and the properties of groundwater basins. 2. The use of groundwater maps where one applies the theory. 3. Submission of answers to compulsory exercises. 4. Work with excerices from the text book or other sources, where the students learn about groundwater systems and can test their own knowledge. 5 Supervised group work to solve practical groundwater problems taken from real examples, topics suggested by the teacher or the students themselves. Compulsory practicals concern how to make use of 1) geological maps 2) groundwater maps 3) maps of bedrock and the Granada well database, as a basis for evaluating the potential for groundwater extraction, 4) Excursion: Half a day in the NMBU area: Groundwater in surficial deposits (Frydenhaug). 
Teaching support:

Web-based via Fronter.


1. Fundamentals of groundwater, Schwartz and Zhang, Wiley and sons, 2003,

2. Additional literature and Flash components in Fronter.


GEO100 or equivalent basic background knowledge in geology

Recommended prerequisites:

FYS100, GEO210 (can be taken at the same time), 

Mandatory activity:

Compulsory assignments, excursions.


Final written examination (3 hours): 100%.

Nominal workload:

300 hours.


Entrance requirements:

Natural Sciences

Reduction of credits:


Type of course:

Lectures/practicals/student presentations: 62 hours. Group work supervision: 2 hours, Field excursion: 4 hours.



An external examiner is used for the assessment of the written examination. The examiner is involved in planning the course and in making the exam questions.

Examination details: One written exam: A - E / Ikke bestått