This is the second course in the NOVA PhD course series "Plant Pathology with a Nordic Dimension", which is scheduled for 2017-2020. The series consist of four courses, each within different disciplines in plant pathology.
- 2017: Biological Control: Microbial Interactions for Improved Plant Health
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Two themes will be addressed a) inoculation biocontrol where biocontrol microbes are applied to the plant crop and b) conservation biocontrol where interactions and function of indigenous microbial communities in the plant crop suppress diseases.
- 2018: Biotrophy in Plant Pathogens - from Recognition to Ecology
Aarhus University, Science and Technology
Focus is on plant interactions with biotrophic pathogens aiming at understanding plant defence reactions, pathogen effector biology and the ecology of biotrophic plant pathogens.
- 2019: Epidemiology and Populations Genetics
Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Epidemiology including local dissemination and distance spread of pathogens. Include the role of population genetics and the race concept in relation to host plant resistance.
- 2020: Secondary Metabolites in Plant Resistance and Pathogen Virulence
University of Helsinki, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry
Metabolites play an important role for virulence of many pathogens and in plants defence. This will be addressed in different pathosystems.
The course to be given in 2018 has a focus on interactions between the host plant and biotrophic pathogens aiming at understanding pathogen effector biology, defence responses of the host plant, how the plant accommodate and feed the pathogen, and the ecology of biotrophs in natural and/or agricultural cropping systems. Effector biology has become an important theme for biotrophic and other pathogens due to large-scale identification of effector candidates through genome- and transcriptome sequencing. At the course, we will give an overview of how effectors play their roles, how they interact with targets in the plant, how they evolve and how they can be studied in different pathosystems. Biotrophic interactions will be studied from early recognition through defence signalling to execution of various defence reactions at both genetic, molecular and cellular levels. We will discuss the zig-zag model and how it impacts on biotrophy, resistance based on single R-genes as well as non-host resistance. This is important in relation to pathogen populations and how new virulent pathogen strains may evolve. Phenotypic host responses at both microscopic and macroscopic levels will be considered, including how biotrophic fungi interact with resistant and susceptible host plants. The utilization of R-genes in practical plant breeding and in evaluation of disease resistance in official variety testing will be demonstrated. The ecology of biotrophic rust fungi in natural and agricultural cropping systems will be examined by studying the role and prevalence of the primary hosts year round, and by the particular role of alternate (sexual) hosts in cereal rust epidemiology.
Each course includes definitions, terms, concepts and theories within the plant pathology disciplines reflected in the course title. Two main themes will be the core of each course schedule. Cases with special relevance for the Nordic zone will have highest priority. Understanding plant pathogen interactions and biocontrol at the molecular level will be prioritised embracing genomics, transcriptome and gene expression studies. Importance of cell wall degrading enzymes, effector molecules and secondary metabolites will be addressed. Discussions of biocontrol, epidemiology, population dynamics and plant resistance as part of integrated pest management will be part of each course.
For the course to be given in 2018
- Two-three lectures by international teachers, Pietro Spanu, Imperial College, London, and Hans Thordal-Christensen, University of Copenhagen
- Nordic teachers will each give lectures on the topic of their expertise (see below) and participate in group work and poster sessions.
- Students will present their own research and act as opponents in poster session.
- Exercise group work will be part of the course.
- Students will study appointed literature prior to the course and discuss them in groups (local teachers will participate).
- Excursion to Aarhus University, Flakkebjerg Research Center – 15 km from the course site
- Nice discussion atmosphere will be facilitated during all learning moments.
Main topics 2018
- Population biology and ecology
- Effector biology
- Defence responses of the host plant
Literature assigned to students (15-18 reviews/key papers) studied prior to the course (journal clubs in home institutions recommended). A journal club will be running 6-10 times for 3 months discussing papers suggested by teachers.
The student will:
- obtain knowledge of definitions, theories and concepts within the pathology disciplines addressed in the course series
- obtain basic skills of genomics/bioinformatics methods used in advanced plant pathology and knowledge about strategies for integrated pest management (IPM)
- obtain specific competences in
- course 1: inoculation biocontrol and conservation biocontrol embracing suppressiveness due to interacting microbial communities and effects of crop management
- course 2: biotrophic pathogen ecology and host interactions, including effector biology and plant defence
- course 3: epidemiology, population genetics and race development
- course 4: the role of metabolites in microbial- and pathogen host interactions.
- Skills in presenting a scientific subjects is another learning outcome of the courses
Evaluation will be based on participation in the journal club and student presentations at the course. Evaluation will also include active participation in group discussions, activity at lectures and at other discussion sessions at the course.
Several forms of teaching are used including lectures, literature discussion sessions and computer exercises. The students acquire facts by reading relevant literature during the journal club and through lectures. These facts are then processed during computer exercises and during discussion sessions. Discussion sessions are opportunities for students with different backgrounds to learn from each other. All students will get the opportunity for an oral presentation of a poster with feedback or an oral presentation at the lecture sessions.
A prerequisite is that the students have an MSc within natural sciences. MSc students can occasionally be accepted to attend.
Admission for NOVA courses is handled by the course organiser/ the NOVA member institution organising the course. Please see the links in the margin for more information.
The course starts Monday 30 April in the morning. Therefore we recommend that you arrive at the venue on Sunday 29 April. Accommodation from Sunday to Monday is included in the total programme costs.
Arriving by train
- From Copenhagen Airport to Slagelse Train Station (travelling time: approx. 1 hour 15 min)
Westbound trains leave from platform no. 2 at Copenhagen Airport (= Københavns Lufthavn, Kastrup st.). One direct train per hour leaves at .40. See http://www.dsb.dk/Rejseplan/bin/query.exe/en?L=vs_dsb&
- Continue by bus (No. 470R) or taxi from Slagelse train station to Kobæk Strand, Skælskør (travelling time: approx. 55 min. by bus and approx. 20 min. by taxi)
Please see the application form.