The Blue Crime Dialogue Forum facilitates knowledge-sharing between researchers in academia and policy makers and practitioners in government agencies in Norway about the prevention of fisheries crime.
Norway has taken a leading role on the prevention of fisheries crime internationally and has ambitious goals to address fisheries crime also nationally. But what is known about fisheries crime and how to prevent it?
Through a series of tutorials and seminars over the course of 2022, NMBU, in collaboration with the Norwegian Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries, will bring researchers from multiple disciplines and policy makers and practitioners from various government agencies together to discuss what we know and what remains unknown about the prevention of fisheries crime, what our ambitions in this field should be, and how research can assist in reaching these goals.
Although fisheries crime plagues the oceans, states find it difficult to act upon the illegal activities. As a result, criminals engaging in fisheries crimes are often met with little resistance from law enforcement, while at the same time achieving high profits.
To combat fisheries crime, Norway has initiated a number of initiatives and strategies, including the Copenhagen Declaration on Transnational Organized Crime in the Global Fishing Industry and the Blue Justice Initiative. The Blue Justice Initiative has allowed Norway to help countries across the world address fisheries crime through the use of an international partnership that promotes a blue economy free from fisheries crime.
The project Blue Crime Dialogue Forum 0.1 is a collaboration between the Norwegian Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries and NMBU and aims to be part of the ministry's ongoing dialogue with stakeholders on preventive measures towards fisheries crime. Although actions are being taken by Norway to combat fisheries crime, the proposed project aims to not only look into the efforts of the public sector, but also scientific expertise in academia, and explore the synergies created by interaction between practitioners and researchers.
The project has three overarching objectives through interaction and learning.
The first objective is to map what is known and what remains unknown about fisheries crime and fisheries crime prevention.
The second objective is to explore the ambitions Norway should have in the effort to promote blue justice.
The third objective is to develop a road map for future research in the area of fisheries crime prevention and that can assist Norway reach its ambitions in this field.
The project analyses both the practical and theoretical problems identified by the practitioners in public sector and the researchers in academia alike; drawing on knowledge exchange in seminars to discover the most efficient ways to combat fisheries crime.
Moreover, the project will focus on promoting the sustainable development goals by discussing strategies that can address the following goals: Goal 1 - To End Poverty; Goal 8 - Decent work and Economic Growth; Goal 12 - Responsible Production; Goal 14 - Promote the Sustainable Use of The Oceans; and perhaps most important, Goal 16 - Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions.
This Blue Crime Dialogue Forum consists of two seminars and eight tutorials in which the three project objectives will be explored. The seminars will seek to bring together experts and practitioners from the public sector and academia with a focus on fisheries crime, law of the sea, and the environment. In the eight tutorials invited researchers will be invited to present research findings and provide advice to members of the public sector in their efforts to address fisheries crime. Notes will be taken from each session by NMBU in order to produce a short joint report detailing the findings from the experts in accordance with the established objectives.
The academic expert and NMBU project lead is professor Stig Jarle Hansen who has conducted extensive research on maritime crime. Professor Hansen is an expert that has previously worked with the US state department, NATO, the Norwegian Royal Navy, The UNODC, The Horn Institute, and The Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (CGPCS). He has given related presentations across the world and has worked with the Danish private actor Risk Intelligence to create maritime risk assessments, while also appearing on CNN, Al Jazeera, BBC, Chinese Channel 4 (CCTV4), and other global media outlets as an expert commenter on related issues. He is now leading the international relations program at the Norwegian University of Life Science.
The project lead at the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries is policy director Eve de Coning. De Coning is currently seconded to Økokrim to assist the Norwegian police build knowledge and situational awareness on fisheries crime. She has previously been seconded to National Central Bureau (NCB) Oslo at the National Crime Investigative Services – Norway (Kripos) for four years while holding leadership positions in the INTERPOL Fisheries Crime Working Group. She has led multilateral operations and exercises and otherwise worked on topics relating to fisheries crime and fisheries crime prevention with INTERPOL in Lyon, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO). De Coning is the author of several academic articles, book chapters and reports on fisheries crime, human trafficking in fisheries and fisheries crime law enforcement and prevention.
The academic expert is Professor Stig Jarle Hansen who has conducted extensive research on maritime crime since 2006. Professor Stig Jarle Hansen has previously worked with the US state department, NATO, the Norwegian Royal Navy, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Horn Institute, and The Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of Somalia (CGPCS). Hansen has given related presentations across the world and has worked with the Danish private actor Risk Intelligence to create maritime risk assessments, while also appearing on CNN, Al Jazeera, BBC, Chinese Channel 4 (CCTV4), and other global media outlets as an expert commenter on related issues. Professor Hansen is currently heading the international relations program at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences.
The research assistant at NMBU is Mats Sagevik Nordås, a master student at NMBU studying International Relations. Nordås has a previous bachelor’s degree in international Environment and Development studies from NMBU and have field experience from Tanzania and Zanzibar focusing on the interactions between the international community and local fishing villages in the region. Nordås current field of study is security, conflict, and development, with specific focus on piracy and post-conflict police reform.
Ian Bryceson is Professor Emeritus at Noragric, the Department of International Environment and Development Studies at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. His research is focused thematically on marine and coastal ecology, coastal fisheries and aquaculture, resilience, vulnerability and people's struggles for their rights. His geographical focus is mainly on the Indian Ocean, particularly the eastern coast of Africa, southern and south-eastern Asia. He is currently engaged in three research projects (i) in Tanzania on rights and governance aspects of small-scale coastal fisheries, (ii) in coastal Tanzania/Mozambique on gas extraction as either a resource blessing or curse, and (iii) in Indonesia on sustainable marine aquaculture development. Among several international commitments, Ian is a founding member and programme committee member of the Western Indian Ocean Marine Science Association and council member of the Nordic Africa Institute.
Annette Alstadsæter er professor i skatteøkonomi ved NMBU, leder av Skatteforsk og forsker på spørsmål rundt skattetilpasning, skatteparadiser og ulikhet. Hun er spaltist i DN og medlem av Sveriges Finanspolitiske Råd.
The project Blue Crime Dialogue Forum 0.1 is a collaboration between the Norwegian Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries and NMBU and aims to be part of the ministry's ongoing dialogue with stakeholders on preventive measures towards fisheries crime.
Norwegian Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries:
Eve De Coning
Illegal fishing is a multi-faceted problem that escapes easy policy responses. It is neither exclusively an environmental or economic problem, nor should it be seen as a security issue alone. Addressing it requires to overcome fragmentation and integrate maritime security, blue economy, ocean health and blue justice considerations in a pragmatic way.
Hvilken innsikt fra ditt fagfelt tenker du at er viktig for arbeidet med å forebygge fiskerikriminalitet?
Mine hovedinteresser er knyttet til reguleringsregimenes "nedstrømsside" (som implementering og etterlevelse) og institusjonelle struktur (som forvaltning og "governance"). Et gitt reguleringsbilde vil påvirkes av hele målgruppebildet, og de såkalte «bad apples» får ofte mye oppmerksomhet. I min forskning har jeg i ulike sammenhenger sett på påtalemyndighetenes oppfølging av industrielle ulykker og i denne forbindelse har jeg sett nærmere på forholdet mellom individuelt og kollektivt ansvar (virksomhetsansvar).
Stig Strandli Gezelius
Hvilken innsikt fra ditt fagfelt tenker du at er viktig for arbeidet med å forebygge fiskerikriminalitet?
Av særlig interesse for forebygging av fiskerikriminalitet er nok studiene av lokalsamfunnenes reaksjoner på lovverk og håndhevelse. Disse studiene viser viktigheten av at offentlig myndighet utøves i takt med sivile moralnormer. Disse moralnormene er til dels kulturavhengige, og effektiv styring krever at myndighetene kjenner kulturen i samfunnet de griper inn i. I min forskning har jeg erfart at norsk lovlydighetskultur har særtrekk som er verdt å ta vare på, men som kan undergraves når lovhåndhevelsen utøves på måter som mangler moralsk legitimitet i lokalsamfunnene. Likeledes har jeg sett at lokalsamfunnene har sin egen moralske gradering av lovbrudd, og at reaksjonene på regelverk og håndhevelse vil variere i henhold til disse. Det kan ha stor verdi for en lovhåndhever å kjenne disse moralske graderingene før virkemidler tas i bruk. Slik kjennskap kan avgjøre om lovhåndhevelsen skaper samarbeidsvilje eller koordinert motstand.
Det er to hovedtrender i den samfunnsvitenskapelige litteraturen om regeloverholdelse på både individ- og statsnivå, én som framhever at overholdelse enten er uavhengig av myndighetsutøvelse (first-order compliance) eller kommer av trusler om sanksjoner (coercive compliance mechanisms), og én som hevder at overholdelse i alle fall delvis er et resultat av reglenes og myndighetenes legitimitet og kommunikasjon (discursive compliance mechanisms). I Barentshavet er både tvangsmessige og kommunikasjons-/legitimitets overholdelsesmekanismer framtredende. I Fiskevernsonen rundt Svalbard har Kystvakten i stor grad vært hensatt til kommunikasjon og å appellere til fiskerireglenes legitimitet ettersom det i praksis (om ikke offisielt) gjennom flere tiår har blitt ført en lempelig håndhevelse. Det er en trend i enkelte land å framheve kommunikasjonsaspektet i kontrollvirksomhet, hvor inspektøren opptrer mer som en «konsulent» som gir veiledning om regeloverholdelse, enn en «politi» som kun er ute etter å avdekke lovbrudd.
Jon Petter Rui
I min forskning er en målsetning å bidra til et helhetlig fokus ved forebygging, avdekking og reaksjoner mot fiskerikriminalitet. Jeg har fokusert på behovet for å ta i betraktning både effektivitet og proporsjonalitet ved tolking av reguleringslovgivningen på området.
What do you think is the most imporant lesson from your field to prevent fisheries crime?
Fishery crimes differ immensely from other forms of criminality based on their different modus operandi and their operational closeness due their specific surrounding and people involved. Therefore, this interdisciplinary research project focuses on the integration of key players into a holistic multi-level approach to control this anomic behaviour by the use of an interlinked network of different actors within a public-private-partnership on fishery crimes.
Cyber Security Group, UiT The Arctic University of Norway
Hvilken innsikt fra deres fagfelt tenker du at er viktig for arbeidet med å forebygge fiskerikriminalitet?
Digitale teknologiske løsninger fremstår som et potensielt vesentlig tiltak i forbindelse med overvåking og kontroll av kommersielt fiske. Vår forskningsgruppe utvikler for tiden digitale prototyper med mulig fremtidig anvendelse i dette domenet, der grunnleggende personvernhensyn må balanseres mot effektiv og presis avdekking, rapportering og bevissikring av ulovlig aktivitet.
Håvard D. Johansen
Michael A. Riegler
United Nations Department of Peace Operations
The comprehensive planning and performance assessment system for UN peacekeeping operations is an example of how an institution can utilise a monitoring system to help it to assess the effects its actions may be having on a complex social system, and in so doing, help the institution to continuously adapt its actions in response to how the system is responding to its actions, or to other dynamics in the system.
David is currently an Information Systems Officer with the Department of Peace Operations. Originally an electrical engineer specializing in optics and semiconductors, he moved towards more data centered work, particularly in a development context, working on evaluations related projects in Lesotho, Rwanda and Ethiopia. In 2020, David joined the CPAS team to support the further development of the platform as it continues to be mainstreamed throughout UN peacekeeping.
Cedric De Coning
Cedric de Coning is a research professor with the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) and a senior advisor for the African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD). His research focus is on strengthening the resilience and sustainability of social-ecological systems under pressure from climate change, conflict and other stressors. He has served in advisory capacities for the AU and UN, including on the UN Secretary-General’s Advisory Board for the Peacebuilding Fund and as advisor to the head of the AU’s Peace Support Operations Division.
Cedric De Coning
The Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries
Click above to findspecific contact info.