Obesity-Related Metabolome and Gut Microbiota Profiles of Juvenile Göttingen Minipigs—Long-Term Intake of Fructose and Resistant Starch
M.V. Curtasu, V. Tafintseva, Z.A. Bendiks, M.L. Marco, A. Kohler, Y. Xu, N.P. Nørskov, H. Nygaard Lærke, K.E. Bach Knudsen, M. Skou Hedemann
The metabolome and gut microbiota were investigated in a juvenile Göttingen minipig model. This study aimed to explore the metabolic effects of two carbohydrate sources with different degrees of risk in obesity development when associated with a high fat intake. A high-risk (HR) high-fat diet containing 20% fructose was compared to a control lower-risk (LR) high-fat diet where a similar amount of carbohydrate was provided as a mix of digestible and resistant starch from high amylose maize. Both diets were fed ad libitum. Non-targeted metabolomics was used to explore plasma, urine, and feces samples over five months. Plasma and fecal short-chain fatty acids were targeted and quantified. Fecal microbiota was analyzed using genomic sequencing. Data analysis was performed using sparse multi-block partial least squares regression. The LR diet increased concentrations of fecal and plasma total short-chain fatty acids, primarily acetate, and there was a higher relative abundance of microbiota associated with acetate production such as Bacteroidetes and Ruminococcus. A higher proportion of Firmicutes was measured with the HR diet, together with a lower alpha diversity compared to the LR diet. Irrespective of diet, the ad libitum exposure to the high-energy diets was accompanied by well-known biomarkers associated with obesity and diabetes, particularly branched-chain amino acids, keto acids, and other catabolism metabolites.