Metal and Phosphate Ions Show Remarkable Influence on the Biomass Production and Lipid Accumulation in Oleaginous Mucor circinelloides
S. Dzurendova, B. Zimmermann, V. Tafintseva, A. Kohler, S.J. Horn, V. Shapaval
The biomass of Mucor circinelloides, a dimorphic oleaginous filamentous fungus, has a significant nutritional value and can be used for single cell oil production. Metal ions are micronutrients supporting fungal growth and metabolic activity of cellular processes. We investigated the effect of 140 different substrates, with varying amounts of metal and phosphate ions concentration, on the growth, cell chemistry, lipid accumulation, and lipid profile of M. circinelloides. A high-throughput set-up consisting of a Duetz microcultivation system coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was utilized. Lipids were extracted by a modified Lewis method and analyzed using gas chromatography. It was observed that Mg and Zn ions were essential for the growth and metabolic activity of M. circinelloides. An increase in Fe ion concentration inhibited fungal growth, while higher concentrations of Cu, Co, and Zn ions enhanced the growth and lipid accumulation. Lack of Ca and Cu ions, as well as higher amounts of Zn and Mn ions, enhanced lipid accumulation in M. circinelloides. Generally, the fatty acid profile of M. circinelloides lipids was quite consistent, irrespective of media composition. Increasing the amount of Ca ions enhanced polyphosphates accumulation, while lack of it showed fall in polyphosphate.