Biotransformation of Animal Fat-By Products into ARA-Enriched Fermented Bioproducts by Solid-State Fermentation of Mortierella alpina
O. Slaný, T. Klempová, V. Shapaval, B. Zimmermann, A. Kohler, M. Čertík
Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a powerful fermentation technology for valorizing rest materials and by-products of different origin. Oleaginous Zygomycetes fungi are often used in SSF as an effective cell factory able to valorize a wide range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates and produce lipid-enriched bioproducts. In this study, for the first time, the strain Mortierella alpina was used in SSF for the bioconversion of animal fat by-products into high value fermented bioproducts enriched with arachidonic acid (ARA). Two cereals-based matrixes mixed with four different concentrations of animal fat by-product were evaluated for finding optimal conditions of a fat-based SSF. All obtained fermented bioproducts were found to be enriched with ARA. The highest substrate utilization (25.8%) was reached for cornmeal and it was almost double than for the respective wheat bran samples. Similarly, total fatty acid content in a fermented bioproduct prepared on cornmeal is almost four times higher in contrast to wheat bran-based bioproduct. Although in general the addition of an animal fat by-product caused a gradual cessation of ARA yield in the obtained fermented bioproduct, the content of ARA in fungal biomass was higher. Thus, M. alpina CCF2861 effectively transformed exogenous fatty acids from animal fat substrate to ARA. Maximum yield of 32.1 mg of ARA/g of bioproduct was reached when using cornmeal mixed with 5% (w/w) of an animal fat by-product as substrate. Furthermore, implementation of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in characterization of obtained SSF bioproducts was successfully tested as an alternative tool for complex analysis, compared to traditional time-consuming methods.