The study identifies deep-rooted internal factors such as poor socio-economic conditions, political exclusion, degradation of local institutions and culture, introduction and promotion of Jihadi culture and militancy as the main drivers of conflict in NWTD.
External factors, like the USSR and US invasions in Afghanistan, a porous border and unseen international actors, have contributed to the start and even escalation of the more recent conflict, but mainly through exacerbating internal factors.
The study recommends that policies aiming to reduce violent conflict in this region pay due attention to the significance of addressing the underlying internal drivers of conflict.
Read the article in Civil Wars:
The Underlying Causes of Violent Conflict in the North Waziristan Tribal Areas of Pakistan by Shakirullah, Bahadar Nawab, Ingrid Nyborg & Noor Elahi