Medium- and large-scale farms account for a rising share of total farmland, especially in the 5 to 100 hectare range where the number of these farms is growing especially rapidly. Medium-scale farms control roughly 20% of total farmland in Kenya, 32% in Ghana, 39% in Tanzania, and over 50% in Zambia.
The rapid rise of medium-scale holdings in most cases reflects increased interest in land by urban-based professionals and influential rural people. The rise of medium-scale farms is affecting the region in diverse ways that are difficult to generalize. Many such farms are a source of dynamism, technical change and commercialization of African agriculture. Evidence shows that the rise of bigger farms is encouraging new entry and investment by large-scale traders, more concentrated marketing channels, and greater use of mechanization by small-scale farmers through tractor rental markets.
However, medium-scale land acquisitions may exacerbate land scarcity in rural areas, bid up land prices and encourage outmigration of rural youth. Medium-scale farmers tend to dominate farm lobby groups and influence agricultural policies and public expenditures to agriculture in their favor. Nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from six countries (Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia) show that urban households own 5% to 35% of total agricultural land and that this share is rising in all countries where two or more DHS surveys warrant comparisons over time. This suggests a new and hitherto unrecognized channel by which medium-scale farmers may be altering the strength and location of agricultural growth and employment multipliers between rural and urban areas. If recent trends continue, medium-scale farms will soon become the dominant scale of farming in many African countries.
CLTS invites eveyone to an open seminar with professor Thomas S. Jayne on the 28th of August, at 09.00-10.00, 4th floor of Tower Building, lunch room of School of Economics and Business.